Vitamins:Functions,Symptoms of deficiency and excess

Vitamins are such an organic compound that is very important for the metabolism of our body. Vitamins are micronutrients that assist carry out vital functions in our body.

The most important vitamins needed by our body are Vitamin A, C, D, E, K, and a group of B complex nutritional vitamins.

Our body cannot make vitamins on its own, so we fill their deficiency with food. But there are some vitamins that our body makes such as Vitamin D and Vitamin K.

We can divide vitamins into two categories.

  1. Water-soluble: Vitamins such as Vitamin B, Vitamin C.
  1. Fat-soluble: Vitamin E, Vitamin A, vitamin D& Vitamin K

Water-soluble Vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins are hydrophilic nutrients that are necessary for small amounts to sustain a healthy life. Unlike fat-soluble nutritional vitamins, they’re generally not stored in body tissues.

If you take In excess water-soluble vitamins, your kidneys excrete most of the excess in urine. This means that water-soluble vitamins need to be consumed daily and those deficiencies can become apparent quickly.

Also, the toxicity of water-soluble vitamins is much less common than toxicity for fat-soluble vitamins, because excess water-soluble vitamins don’t easily build up in the body.


Fat-soluble Vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins are hydrophobic nutrients that are necessary for small amounts to sustain a healthy life. Excess fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the liver and fat (adipose tissues).

Therefore, these vitamins do not need to be eaten every day as stores of the vitamins can sustain a person for some time.

This ability to store nutritional vitamins in tissue also can result in vitamin toxicity. This toxicity is a vitamin overdose caused by taking a vitamin in excess. Since fat-soluble nutritional vitamins will be stored within the body they will accumulate to the point of inflicting sickness

You might have heard about hypervitaminosis, and this is caused by the deposition of an excess amount of vitamins in the body. so this phenomenon is very privileged in the case of fat-soluble vitamins.


Vitamin A

The chemical name of vitamin A is Retinol, and this is a fat-soluble vitamin.

Vitamin A is another vitamin that beauty industries use a lot. It has anti-aging properties.

This vitamin helps a lot to slow down the aging process. It is found in cosmetics under the name Retinol.


Dairy Products, Cod Liver Oil, Dark Green, and Yellow Vegetables, Fruits.


Functions of vitamins:

  • Helps maintain eye health.
  • It promotes growth and development, as well as helps maintain healthy bones and teeth.
  • Helps increase the protection and regeneration of cells and mucous membrane.
  • Maintains healthy breathing and bowel areas.
  • Very helpful in maintaining hair, nail, and skin health.

Symptoms of deficiency,

  • Vitamin A deficiency leads to problems such as night blindness, dry eyes, dry skin.
  • Vitamin deficiency in the body can increase the risk of abdominal discomfort, poor growth, weak bones, and teeth.

Symptoms of excess

  • Vitamin A supplements in the body can cause problems like dry scalp, peeling and itching skin, rashes.
  • Excess Vitamin A consumption can cause hair loss.
  • Vitamin A is a vitamin that accumulates in the body which can lead to poor appetite and fatigue.
  • Vomiting, one of the causes of abdominal discomfort.
  • Leading to liver injury
  • Causing headaches and bone pain. In addition, it becomes a reason for a nerve problem.

Vitamin B

We can divide vitamin B into various types like vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12.

Vitamin B1:

Its chemical name is Thymine. It is water-soluble.

Its main function is very useful for developing the brain and lack of it can cause beriberi disease.

Its main sources are sunflower seeds, sprouts, cereal potato oranges, and eggs


Vitamin B2:

The chemical name is riboflavin. Vitamin B2 is considered the best for our skin.

Due to its deficiency, there is a problem of Cheilosis and ulceration.

Its main sources are bananas, sprouts, cow’s milk, eggs, meats, green beans, and fish.


Vitamin B3:

The chemical name is niacin and it is water-soluble.

Vitamin B3 helps to control our blood pressure and helps in reducing headache, diarrhea.

Diseases due to its deficiency – hair becoming white, dull wisdom

Its main sources are dates, milk, eggs, tomatoes, carrots, peanuts, sugarcane, etc.


Vitamin B5

The chemical name of vitamin B5 is Pantothenic acid.

And it is water-soluble. Helps to keep the hair healthy and prevents it from becoming white. This reduces stress.

Due to its deficiency, there is a possibility of Pelagic and 3D syndrome.

And its main sources are meat, peanuts, potatoes, tomatoes, and leafy vegetables.


Vitamin B6:

The chemical name of vitamin B6 is Pyridoxine.


It is responsible for remembering dreams.

Symptoms of deficiency

  • Vitamin b6 deficiency causes anemia problems.
  • There may be a chance of nervous problems, insomnia, depression, muscle spasms.

Talking about its main source, it is found in meat, grains, bananas, vegetables.

Buy grains online

Vitamin B7

The chemical name of vitamin B7  is biotin. It is very good for the skin and hair.

Due to its deficiency, we can get dermatitis soon. Problems such as paralysis, body pain, hair fall, etc.

If we talk about its source,  in meat, milk, egg yolk, vegetables we found this vitamin B7.


Vitamin B9:

Its chemical name is folic acid. It is considered to be very important for the treatment of skin and arthritis.

Pregnant women are advised to take this. Due to its deficiency, we get Anemia, dysentery.

Talking about its source, it is found in pulses, vegetables, sunflower seeds, fruits.

Buy  pulses online

Vitamin B12:

Its chemical name is cyanocobalamin. Talking about its benefits, it helps to generate and develop RBC.

It reduces the risk of Anemia and ulcers in the mouth.

Due to its deficiency in the body, there is a chance of Anemia.

The main source of vitamin B12 is meat, liver, milk and dairy products, eggs, fish, and poultry.


Vitamin C

The chemical name is ascorbic acid. It is a water-soluble vitamin.

Functions of vitamins:

  • Helps synthesize collagen;
  • Promotes growth and plays an important role in the repair of cells, gum, teeth, blood vessels, and bones.
  • Helps in quick heal after surgery and injury.
  • Helps calcium and iron absorption in the body and also enhances immunity.

Symptoms of deficiency:

  • Lack of vitamin C is responsible for scurvy.
  • Gum inflammation and bleeding, fall of teeth. Susceptibility to skin bleeding.
  • Becomes reason for the burst of capillary vessels, weakness, fatigue.
  • Vitamin C deficiency leads to bone pain, swollen and aching joints.

Symptoms of excess:

  • If vitamin C levels are high in the body, there may be problems such as kidney stones and diarrhea.

Lack of vitamin C can be fill by eating fruits like lemon, orange, grapefruit, strawberry, green pepper, tomato.

A very good amount of vitamin C is found in Broccoli. This is very beneficial for women.  Pregnant women or those who smoke should eat the most.


Vitamin D (Sunshine Vitamin)

It is also called the sunshine vitamin. Its chemical name is calciferol. It is a fat-soluble vitamin.

Functions of vitamins:

  • It is very helpful in absorbing and utilizing calcium and phosphorus in our body so as to maintain bones and brain health. It works well on tooth decay.
  • Maintains normal calcium level in blood.



  • Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets problems in children.
  • In adults, Vitamin D deficiency may be a reason for osteomalacia and osteoporosis.

Osteomalacia and osteoporosis both are more common in females so you are a girl or woman it is more important that you take care of more vitamin D consumption and sun exposure.



  • Calcified cartilage High calcium level in the blood causes abnormal heartbeat and damage to organs such as kidneys.
  • Excess of vitamin D in the body leads to vomiting, diarrhea problems.
  • The problem of Sore Eyes and Itchy skin problems are the symptoms of an excess vitamin D in the body.

We get vitamin D from our diet or our skin is made by ourselves. The work of making vitamin D is done by the cholesterol in the skin by the presence of ultraviolet rays in the sunlight, which means that our body makes vitamin D by itself.


If we talk about the source, cod liver oil, milk, egg yolk, our skin also produces vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.


Vitamin E (Beauty vitamin)


The chemical name of vitamin E is Tocopherol. This is a fat-soluble vitamin.

There is a lot of contribution of vitamin E in keeping our skin, our hair, and nails

Function 0f vitamins:

  • Vitamin E  helps to strengthen our immune system.
  • It plays an important role to keep our skin good and helps to keep our hair healthy.
  • Helps in the proper working of our cells.
  • Protects red blood cells: You know that red blood cells carry oxygen (oxygenated blood) from the heart to the whole body, this vitamin helps to protect that red blood cells.
  • Vitamin E helps as an antioxidant.

Symptoms of deficiency

  • Anemia: Lack of blood in the body can cause problems in children and weakness and fatigue in adults.

Symptoms of excess

  • Excess of the vitamin increases the chances of low thyroxin levels.
  • Excess of Vitamin E in the body can lead to Fertility disease, headache, dizziness, fatigue, stomach discomfort, and poor appetite.


The sources of vitamin E are Vegetable oil, grains, nuts, eggs, milk.


Vitamin K

The chemical name of Vitamin K is Phylloquinone. This is a fat-soluble vitamin.

Functions of vitamins:

  • The main function of vitamin K is it helps in blood clotting and prevents over bleeding.
  • It will help to maintain the health of the liver and also helps to make protein for the bones and tissue.

Symptoms of deficiency

Vitamin K deficiency can cause uncontrolled bleeding from wounds due to difficulty in clotting.

Symptoms of excess:

  • Excess consumption of Vitamin K can lead to liver damage.


Tomatoes, green vegetables, and soya beans. The human body can also produce Vitamin K through germs in the colon(part of the small intestine).

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