Nutrients and their functions

Nutrients are components and food that the body needs to grow and maintain healthy function. Basically, the body needs nutrients to survive, let’s see about Nutrition, balanced nutrition, Nutrients, and their functions.




What is nutrition?

NUTRITION is food, that our body needs on a daily basis to stay healthy in balanced quantity.

Ex: complex carbohydrates, protein, good fats


What is balanced nutrition?

Daily supply of the adequate amount of nutrients from our diet to stay healthy.

Nutrients we need every day:

Proteins (30% of daily diet)

Complex carbohydrates (40 % of daily diet)

Essential good fats (30% of daily diet)

Vitamins and minerals


Water (2 liters to 4 liters)


Why balanced nutrition?

It helps in…

Improves immunity

Growth & development



Increasing energy levels & vitality

Weight loss

Weight gain and weight maintenance


Nutrients and their functions


These are of 2 types. The first one is quickly digestible such as dessert, jam, jelly, etc. and the second one is slowly digestible, such as corn, millets, rice, wheat, etc.

In the first group, there is no fiber, and the body produces a large amount of fat the sugar content that is readily available in those food items.

While the other group contains fiber which takes a longer time to digest so that the body is able to use them for energy. So that fat does not accumulate in the body.

The sugars are immediately digested so they do not store in the body for a longer time, thus insulin is not secreted by the pancreas in the required amount so leads to increase blood glucose and cholesterol levels.

In such a short time, the cholesterol cannot melt and turn into energy.

But when the starch is slow to digest the body allows for insulin secretion and in blood, sugar is converted into energy without converting it into cholesterol.

Starch protects the body’s health. The fiber present in the starch helps to remove fat and other unnecessary substances from the body. According to this, fiber will help prevent constipation.



Protein is essential for a healthy body. Because of lack of this, the body cannot function properly. This is a major component of blood.

It results in the formation of bone and muscle and cells of the body’s muscles. Protein is required to perform many functions of the body.

As the body stores fat and carbohydrates, it does not store protein and amino acids. So they should be consumed daily.

The first use of the term protein did by j Berzelius.

Protein is a complex nitrogen-containing organic material consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen elements.

There are some such proteins in which copper, zinc, sulfur, and phosphorus are found in very small amounts.

Protein is the main component of protoplasms and is essential for physical growth, body repair, and biological activity.

One kilogram of body weight requires about 1 gram of protein. If it is deficient in the body, the amino acids are absorbed by the muscles. This results in weakness in the body.

In our body, 1 gram of protein produces 4.1 calories of energy.

It is a complex organic compound that consists of 20 amino acids.

About 15% of the human body is made up of protein, nitrogen is found in all proteins.

The human body needs 20 types of protein, out of which 10 are synthesized by our own body and the remaining 10 are obtained through food.

Protein has 3 types
  • Simple protein
  • Compound protein
  • Deviated protein

Simple proteins: Those proteins, which are made up of only amino acids, are called simple proteins.

Examples: Albumins, globulins, etc.

Compound proteins: Proteins that are grouped together with molecules of some other substance with amino acids are called compound proteins.

Examples: nucleoproteins, glycoprotein, phosphoprotein, etc.

Derived proteins: Proteins that are formed from the aqueous decomposition of natural proteins. Example: Proteins, Peptones.


Functions of Protein

Protein helps in the production of muscles, enzymes, and hormones.

Protecting the body from infections. It produces antitoxins and boosts immunity in the body.

Protein plays a major role in transmitting nutrients to various organs of the body.   It supplying energy to every corner of the body. Protein is essential for the health of the skin, teeth, and nails.

The lack of protein in the body can be a cause of dark circles underneath the eyes.



FATS are made of collections of molecules called triglycerides.  If this collection is liquid at room temperature, it can be called oil; if it is solid, it is referred to as fat.

Fats can be categorized as Saturated fats and Unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats are subdivided into Trans Fats, Monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats.  Polyunsaturated fats again divided into Omega 3 and Omega 6.

Good fat sources: Avocados, Egg yolk, Coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil, Salmon, Flaxseed, Ghee, Almonds, Walnuts

Bad fats are mainly found at Margery, pastries, corn, and soya oil, basically all processed vegetable oils.


Functions of fats:

Fats are the largest and the cleanest source of energy and they provide 9 calories per gram.

They are essential for growth, development, and cell functions.

They also help in maintaining the body’s core temperature and this fat layer also protects the inner core from extreme temperature changes.

Fat is needed to absorb certain vitamins. Vitamins like A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble, which means without fat they could not be absorbed into the body.

There is a layer of fat that surrounds major organs and acts as a cushion; it prevents organs by absorbing shock from a sudden impact.



As with vitamins minerals are essential for our health though they do not supply any energy one of the key tasks of minerals is to maintain the proper balance of water in the body sodium chloride and potassium take the lead.


What are the most important minerals for individuals your age?

Calcium is especially important for young people because it is needed to build strong bones if you do not get enough calcium now you may develop weaker bone problems later in life.

Calcium is obtained mainly in milk and milk products. It not only helps in the preparation of bones but also in the functions of the nerves and muscles.

There is always a certain amount of calcium in the blood. When its volume fluctuates, the nerves and muscles cannot function properly.

Calcium of bones goes into the blood to compensate for the lack of calcium. This weakens the bones and perforates them.



Next to calcium, phosphorus is the second most important mineral required by the body, and it needs just as much calcium. The excess phosphorus can lead to the problem in the body. Phosphorus can be found in pulses, grains, oilseeds, and fruits.

Pulses buy now online


A source of sodium is salt used in regular cooking. Do not consume more than 10 grams a day.


This is to help eliminate most of the salt we consume. It keeps the body in balance with water. It will help to keep high blood pressure stable and preventing heart disease.

They need potassium for the nerves and the flesh continents to do their jobs.

It is high in potatoes, potatoes, greens, and yellow vegetables and legumes.



Another very important mineral is iron. Iron binds oxygen which is used to make energy.

Iron is an essential element for blood production. About 70% of your body’s iron is found in red blood cells, blood called hemoglobin, and in muscle cells called myoglobin.

That certainly makes iron an important mineral in the early diet, although vegetarians may consume as much iron as non-vegetarians, a review found that they are still at greater risk for deficiency.

A deficiency in iron is one of the causes of anemia that leads to excess fatigue.

Young ladies especially need extra iron because of its loss as a part of losing blood during their menstrual cycles.

Red meats are rich in iron and also in some vegetables like spinach and apricots, basil, legumes.



Eating a balanced and healthy diet does not cause zinc deficiency. Milk, yogurt, avocado, mushrooms are a source of zinc.

When there is a lack of zinc in the body, the tongue does not know the taste of food. Wounds do not heal easily. There will be Impaired growth in children.



Vitamins are essential for maintaining health, and very few vitamins are sufficient to keep the body functioning properly. They are organic materials. Different vitamins perform different functions of the body. Two types of vitamins, Water-soluble vitamins are one type and oil-soluble are another type.

Different types of vitamins mainly required by the body are Vitamin A, C, D, K, E, AND B complex vitamins.

Vitamin A is necessary for normal vision, immune function, and reproduction. Good sources of vitamin A are sweet potatoes, carrots, and spinach.

Vitamin B helps to free the energy in the food we eat and can be found in whole grain, bread, cereals, and milk.

Vitamin C helps boost the immune system and make collagen that is important for wound healing it also forms a base for teeth and bones, food rich in vitamin C oranges, kiwis, strawberries, and red and green bell peppers.

D Vitamin plays an important role in promoting the absorption of calcium, which is essential for bone growth. Vitamin D is the only vitamin that humans can make from sunlight.

But many people usually do not get enough sun exposure especially during the winter hence we need to get vitamin D from foods such as milk, salmon tuna, and eggs.



Why do we need to drink water? we can survive without food for weeks and months, but we can survive without water for only a matter of days.

Water is necessary for life and all of the activities going on in our body need water. Water makes up to 50 to 60% of our body weight.

It carries nutrients to all of our cells lubricates joints, cushions our brain, gets rid of waste from our body and keeps our body at the right temperature.

There is a thirst center located in the hypothalamus of our brain that alerts us when we are thirsty. However, it is better to drink before we feel thirsty to allow our body to function at its best.

Lack of water in our body can lead to dehydration even mild dehydration can drain our energy and make us feel tired.

In fact, dehydration is a common cause of headaches if you lost water through sweating during exercise or in hot weather or if you are sick and experienced vomiting or diarrhea. You have to drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration.





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